Protozoa Gymnostomes, Order Gymnostomatida, Rhabdophorina, Cyrtophorina, Suctorida

Gymnostomes (Order Gymnostomatida) – Protozoans As the name suggests the mouth is without ciliary organelles. This is a most diverse group of structurally simple ciliates. But diversity has led to considerable changes in classification in recent years. A comparison of current classifications shows that no general agreement has yet been reached. Most species in the … Read more

Ciliates Classes : Ciliata, Holotricha

Ciliates (Class Ciliata) – Protozoans These protozoans have many cilia and nuclei of two sizes. Because the mastigophoran Opalina also has many flagella (or cilia), it is the nuclei that act as the criterion and establish the true ciliates as a distinct group. Other features include a kinety. Holotrichs (Subclass Holotricha) This group is regarded … Read more

Protozoa Subclass Coccidiomo

Protozoa Subclass Coccidiomo Subclass Coccidiomo This group is distinguished from the previous one by spending the whole of its trophozoite life intracellularly, and by effecting massive reproduction with schizogony. There is only one major order which contains three suborders. These are markedly different from one another. Order Eucoccidia These are parasites of epithelial cells of … Read more

Protozoa Subclass Gregarinomorpha 

Subclass Gregarinomorpha In this group are placed various parasites with reproductive similarities. The trophozoite is large and feeds in the lumen of the host’s gut or between cells Genetic exchange is achieved by a union of two sporonts (mature trophozoites) prior to gametogenesis. This union and the formation of gametocysts ensures that gametes can find … Read more

Sponges Phylum Parazoa examples Characteristics and Orders

All sponges are aquatic and most of them are marine. Where Freshwater sponges exist? Freshwater sponges are found in fair numbers—but belonging to relatively few species—in ponds and lakes, streams and rivers, even in lakes formed in the craters of extinct volcanoes 10,000 feet above sea-level. Where Marine sponges exist? Marine sponges exist in large … Read more

Mesozoans Phylum Mesozoa Examples, Characteristics Orders

Where Mesozoans found? The mesozoans are tiny parasitic animalcules found in certain marine invertebrates. Orders of Mesozoans Dicyemida Orthonectida Simple multicellular structure has provoked much speculation about their place in any systematic classification of the animal kingdom. How Mesozoans infect the kidneys? In a way still unknown, the worm-like dicyemids infect the kidneys of young squids … Read more

Spirotrichs (Subclass Spirotricha) Example, Order and Characteristics

Spirotrichs (Subclass Spirotricha) Members of this class are mostly free-living and have a more highly developed AZM than the primitive hymenostomes. The AZM winds clockwise to the cytostome. Many of the more advanced spirotrichs have no somatic cilia but this loss is secondary. There is a wide variety of structure which prevents generalizations on morphology; … Read more

Spore formers (Class Sporozoa) Examples, Order Characteristics, and sub classes

The spore-formers (Class Sporozoa) This class, like many others making up the phylum, is a dumping ground for probably unrelated families and orders. Its characters are based on the fact that all are well-adapted parasites. To this end, reproductive efficiency is exaggerated and structural complexity reduced. The same stages, though not the names, are found … Read more